Construction 4.0 is progressively beginning to force itself, even if the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology has been a key enabler for the digital transformation in the construction industry. Even if the experts agree that it will be a significant transformation for the sector, it is still challenging to give a definite definition today. It may be helpful to keep in mind that this revolution has its roots in the First Industrial Revolution in history, which was characterized by mechanization, the Second Industrial Revolution, which had electrification, and the Third Industrial Revolution, which featured automation. The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0), which is predicated on universal connection, promises to greatly advance corporate practices.
What is Construction 4.0, exactly?
International agreement on the true meaning of the term "Construction 4.0" is still lacking. While some authors define it as a pure and straightforward implementation of Industry 4.0 in the construction industry (i.e., the use of ubiquitous connectivity technologies for real-time decision-making), others see it as a way to find a coherent complementarity between the major emerging technological approaches in the sector. Others, however, view it as a more comprehensive strategy that goes beyond the straightforward technological foundation to effectively address the sector's current difficulties.
Whatever the definition, the major shift brought about by Construction 4.0 appears to center on a decentralized connection between the physical world and the digital world through everywhere connectivity.
Technologies Associated Construction 4.0 is based on a wider range of technologies, with the Internet of Things, Digital Twin, additive manufacturing, cloud computing, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), and, of course, BIM, being the main ones. Industry 4.0 in many industries is based on technologies that enable connectivity and real-time decentralized decision-making. The almost total automation of the whole project life cycle is the key to the Construction 4.0 revolution's immense promise. Digital twins are used throughout this automation, from planning to execution, including design and construction. As BIM models are used more frequently as digital twins during the design phase, it is now possible to test them using simulations of the final product.
The Implications for the Industry
It is feasible to provide individualized, intelligent, and linked building products in the Construction 4.0 age. This entails the industry being digitally transformed, with digital design, building, and operation Clearly, the construction industry undergoes a paradigm shift as a result of this digital transition. This paradigm shift, which has been extensively studied in the scientific literature in relation to the diffusion of BIM, has to occur on a variety of dimensions, including those of technology, organization, policies, etc.
It also requires extensive integration of people, knowledge, processes, and information. In an Industry 4.0 setting, attention should generally be given to three different integrations: end-to-end, vertical, and horizontal integrations. In order to accomplish vertical integration, horizontal integration is related to the integration between the resources and the associated information network inside the value chain.
The Crucial Role of Data
The issue of data and its management will be crucial in a Construction 4.0 environment and force new business models on the sector. A sizable amount will be produced through sensors and other CPS systems, in addition to the large variety of data and information that is often generated during the planning and execution of construction projects. The utilization of platforms designed to analyze, handle, and most importantly connect these data to the current business platforms will be necessary due to the amount, diversity, and velocity of these data. Therefore, the systems needed won't simply be Big Bata or decision-making platforms, but rather matchmaking platforms that offer fresh, cutting-edge services and goods to link to the building site.